GRM 2010 GRM 2011

Abstract Details

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the impact of globalization on women in the GCC
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According to David Held public references to globalization have become increasingly common over the last two decades , although the concept itself can be traced back to much earlier period as its origins still lie in the work of many nineteenth and early twentieth century intellectuals , Joseph Nye defines globalization as the child of both technology and policy ,and its core refers to world wide networks of interdependence as a network is a series of connection of points in a system. Held, D (2008)
One of the main characteristics of globalization is the changing political and economic environment and the intensification of interconnectedness ,therefore economic actors and policy makers view networks as response to their needs dealing with the new environment .Donnellon,A&Langowitz,N.(2009), Held, D (2008).
Linking global to local environment , Jaggar,A (2001) defines globalization as the rapidly accelerating integration of local and national economies into a single and global market regulated by international organization.
Recently An emerging Asian economic and entrepreneurial environment showed a gradual improvement in the opportunities for female entrepreneurs across the region , researchers believe that it is due to the emergent trade networks .Ghosh,J(1999).
Capitalizing on the role of networks ,In their extensive review on women entrepreneurs Hart et al(2001) point out to the vital role of women entrepreneurs networking as it leads them to many benefits such as economic and political empowerment .

Women networking in GCC countries
Although in the GCC ,Gulf Cooperation Council were social structures are vital for political and economic empowerment , not only emerging business networks are important but also researchers believe that the lack of these networks is regarded a major barrier against women’s success . Jamali(2009) .
women networks have existed for more than 25 years tied to organizations ,they have included women minorities and role models ,recently women networks have experienced a boom phase racing for talent around the world . Brunetto and Farr-Wharton(2006) Donnellon .A and Langowitz.N(2009)
Some of these networks attract promising women recruits , others enhance business opportunities for women , other types are connective which offer work life balance seminars ,developmental and mentoring and business development and strategic such as business networks . Donnellon .A and Langowitz.N(2009)

Although Female entrepreneurs are growing in number in high middle and low income countries but it is still less common in the middle east, as world bank reports.
The report also states that from 2003 to 2006 frequencies of female business ownership in north America reached 32% , in Europe and central Asia 32%, Eat Asia 20%, Latin America 20%, and middle east and north African countries only 13 %.
Using networking to enhance women empowerment, international organizations
have encouraged women in the GCC join networking
programs . (MENA- OECD march 2010)
Looking deeper into entrepreneurial networks characteristics , Researchers support the idea of the importance of networks in developing countries and consider the absence of networks as a major barrier that women entrepreneurs face. knouse&Webb (2001), Stevenson (2000) .

The GCC region and Kuwait in particular has a distinguished historical heritage .its location has made it an important station for commercial communication.
The most significant transformation is currently taking place in the area of economic and political reforms , including education and liberation therefore it has a massive influence on all members of society of which the most notable is the role of women which historically was centered around family and children due to traditional conservative tribal culture and segregation of sexes was at the heart of the community’s social values.(Shah and Al-Qudsi 1990)
Therefore Very few women owned merchant ships which they inherited from their fathers and conducted their trade through male representatives.(Al-Mutawa,2010)
Today , Realizing the low representation that women have in the occupational structures, relative to men the Kuwait government has successfully mobilized the increasing employment of women in the labor market .it can therefore be argued that there is a change in attitude toward women in the labor market .

Focusing on Kuwaiti women networking , the paper investigates motivation , benefits and barriers members of two major networks face . The paper also looks at recent macroeconomic changes in the GCC Region in terms of its effect on women in the region , and the emerging women entrepreneurial networks .
The paper highlights the observed effects of on female networks members , and examines characteristics of two leading networks in Kuwait , questioning the role of gender and density of networks .and its effects of effective empowerment .
A qualitative approach , through in depth interviews that were constructed on two major entrepreneurial networks in Kuwait. And data was inductively analyzed.
Theory used in this paper is the social network theory
Models used in the paper are the Witt model that demonstrates levels of observation and the Bolton and Thompson entrepreneurial model .
Findings also show benefits women gain from these networks such as acquiring resources and business growth , political empowerment .advice and support .Knowledge transfer and sharing ideas
Paper also explores youth networks ,that help young businesses men and women to enhance their small and medium businesses and provides a comparison between them and women only networks.
Kuwait is setting a plan a development strategy for the years 2010 until 2025 and its based on the use of high technology in education process through creating a technological infra-structure ,however there are several interesting areas identified as in this paper such as the lack of information concerning how to start a business or make a political decision , as well as GCC women’s urge to achieve and succeed and the lack of support which is a barrier. networks surveyed are women business networks in the GCC trade councils and entrepreneurial
paper also lists various networks in the GCC youth and women only networks ,focusing on Kuwait. Paper also gives a special attention to online networks and social media matrix .

Selected bibliography

1-Donnellon,A&Langowitz,N.(2009) Leveraging Women’s Networks For Strategic Value, Strategy and Leadership,Vol 37,no.3,pp29-36
2- Gosh ,J (1999) Impact of Globalization on Women :Women and Economic Liberalization in the Asian and Pacific Region
Research Paper presented at June 22-24 1998 United Nations conference Center Bangkok.

3-Green,P.g.,&Hart M.M.,&Gatewood E.G.,&CarterN.M.(2003)
Women Entrepreneurs :Moving Front and Center,An Overview of Research and Theory ,Coleman Foundation ,White Paper Series .Retrieved from
4- Held,D (2008) The Global Transformations Reader ,An Introduction to the Globalization Debate. Held&McGrew

5- Jamali,D (2009) Constraints and opportunities Facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries ,a relational perspective ,Gender in Management: An International; Journal Vol.24,No.4,pp.232-251
6- Knouse,S.B&Webb,S Virtual networking for women and minorities , Career development international , MCB University Press (2001)

7-MENA-OECD (2010) Women’s Business Network with support of world association of women entrepreneurs. (Middle East and North Africa-Organization for Economic Corporation and Development) Investment Program ,Supporting The Integration Of Women In Mena Economies .