GRM 2010 GRM 2011

Abstract Details

Family Name:
Anisur Rahman
First Name:
Title of Paper:
Impact of Indian Gulf Migration on the Socio-Economic Conditions of Muslims in India: A Study of Migrating Villages in North India
Paper Proposal Text :
Paper Proposal
Impact of Indian Gulf Migration on the Socio-Economic Conditions of Muslims in India: A Study of Migrating Villages in North India
Anisur Rahman
The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of Indian Gulf migration on Muslims migrants’ families especially on their education in India. It is said that the socio-economic conditions of community have substantially improved due to the inflow of the Gulf remittances. It is also believed that migrants’ attitude towards education has also changed largely on account of foreign exposure and interaction. They are now keen to give good education to their children. It is also reported that they argued that had they been well educated, they would have got more money or good job also. It is also talked that there is a trend emerging in migrating villages that left behind family members especially wives shift with their children to urban city for a good education of their children. In this study, it would be examined to what extent these remittances would be used for productive purposes or for wasteful consumption. How far these remittances have improved their socio-economic conditions especially their education? What are the attitudes of family members to education? Besides education, how are they investing Gulf money in order to improve their economic status? All these questions would be investigated in the right perspective with help of my study and other studies which have been undertaken in this area.
Indian Labour migration to the Gulf, on the large scale, began since the early 70s on account of oil boom that took place in the Gulf region. As a result, industrialization and other economic activities got momentum which led to the great demand of manpower in this region. There are over 15 million expatriates working in this region. Of them, about 6 million Indian workers are estimated to be there. It should be clear in our mind that Indian migration is now taking place from North India also in large number. Previously, it was Karala that was dominating but now its share has come down to almost one fifth of total migration. According to latest 2010 Annual Report of Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs, it is Uttar Pradesh and Bihar from where maximum migration has taken place to the Gulf countries. Since very few studies have been conducted in order to understand different aspects of labour migration to the Gulf region, hence more and more studies are required to understand this phenomenon. Some studies conducted in North India (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) reveal that the majority of Gulf migrants are Muslims. They were unemployed at time of migration. They are also found to be unskilled and semi-skilled with no or little education. As a result of labour migration, India received over US $21 billion as remittances in 2008 that rose to US $ 55 billion in 2010. At macro level, the development impact of remittances is observed in terms of Human resource development, physical assets, financial investment, etc. These remittances have positive impact on Indian economy and society. Many studies reveal that a good proportion of remittances are kept in the form of financial assets after spending a major proportion of it in the acquisition and construction of physical assets. Some proportion of remittances is also kept in Banks as fixed deposit. It is also found that some proportion of expenditure also increased on education and medicines as a result of the receipt of Gulf remittances. At the micro-level, Due to the inflow of the Gulf remittances in migrating villages, enormous change has taken in this area. The Gulf remittances are also playing a major role in the enhancement of education amongst migrants’ families. There is, however, no doubt that some proportion of remittances is used for unproductive purposes such as construction of houses and consumption, expenses on marriages and purchases of jewellery & ornaments, etc. Thus we see that this labour migration has had positive impact on reducing unemployment and promoting education in migrating places, apart from enriching India’s balance of payments, commodity export, business profits and government earnings.