GRM 2010 GRM 2011

Abstract Details

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Emigration Policies of Major Asian Countries Sending Temporary Labour Migrants to the Gulf
Paper Proposal Text :
The objective of this paper is to outline the policies that have evolved in the major Asian countries from which migrants to the Gulf originate. The largest number of migrants presently in the Gulf countries are from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Nepal, with each country having a stock of more than one million in the Gulf. The current situation has been enabled by a host of policies and legal frameworks that were put in place in response to the heightened demand for foreign workers in the 1970s, and generally persisting until now. The major thrust of the policies of sending countries centers on regulating, facilitating, maintaining or maximizing, the outflows. Protection of relatively more vulnerable groups such as female domestic workers has also remained an important element with occasional bans and requirements of a minimum wage. A more recent development relates to concerted programs and policies aimed at skill upgrading to enhance competitiveness with workers from other countries. Policies for managing return migration are rare. Also, monitoring systems to evaluate the effectiveness of existing policies, especially the ones relating to protection of workers, are weak or non-existent. Bilateral and multilateral efforts are, however, being made to enhance the benefits of migration for the sending and host countries, as well as the migrants.