GRM 2010 GRM 2011

Abstract Details

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Title of Paper:
Security Puzzle and The New Security Problems in the GCC States
Paper Proposal Text :
Historically, since the establishment of the polity system, the concept of security has been a controversial but a crucial issue within its classical definitions. With the period happened from the Westphalia agreement 1648 to end of the Cold War, the security studies were considered as a concept that is; “ the pursuit of freedom from threat and the ability of states and societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change, which they see as hostile” (Stone, 2009). However, the globalization path in the new world system inevitably leads to the emergence of new approaches in security studies. With this respect, the frame of security has been redefined with new points to fill the gap in the classical understandings of security. As proclaimed by the Berry Buzan the security studies has been pointed out within a new security puzzle that has “five sectors of security; Political, Military, Economic, Societal, and Environmental” (1981).
Nevertheless, despite these evolutions in the understanding of the “Security”, for the states, particularly most of “the Gulf Regimes”, the concept of security still stays in “hard” and “primarily” “military terms” (Cordesman, 2007). Since, for the Gulf Countries (GCC members in specific), which can be underlined with the highest Military expenditure in Middle East and in the top ten in the World, the concept of security means spending a greater share of their GDP on the military than the global average (Solmirano &Wezeman, 2010). However, “the possession of the standing armies and sophisticated weaponry is in itself insufficient to guarantee security and stability” for the Gulf Counties (Ulrichsen, 2011, p.2). As, the rise of primarily non-military sources of potential insecurity is profoundly reshaping the security paradigm in the Gulf States in the medium and longer term (Ulrichsen, 2011, p.4). Thus, the transformation of the security understandings in the Gulf States, in terms of new concerns related with environmental, societal and economic security, are vital issue for them, because, traditional security understandings of those states have become old-fashioned and shortcoming insight to define the real problems within those states.
In the lights of these points, it is crucial to ask that: How can Gulf states adopt new security understandings in related studies based on “security puzzle” (involves five sectors of security; Political, Military, Economic, Societal, and Environmental)? What are the main obstacles of the Gulf States in these transformation period that reckons societal, environmental and economic security as well as political and military issues?
In order to answer these significant questions about the nature of security in the Gulf States, this paper examines in general, new security problems and necessity of the new policies that can be applied in the Gulf States. In that regard, to explore nature of the security insight of the Gulf Regimes, the paper discusses the common security policy of these states, which bases on the classic security understandings: military and political security. Moreover, the new elements in security puzzle are discussed to highlight the necessity of policies that tend to the societal, economical and environmental security consideration.
I. Stone, M., (2009), A Comprehensive Security Analysis, Columbia University, School of International and Public Affairs – New York, USA
II. Buzan, B. (1981) People, States and Fear: An Agenda For International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. 1st edion
III. Buzan,B. (1991).\"New Patterns of Global Security in the Twenty-First Century.\" International Affairs 67(3). 431-451.
IV. Solmirano, C. & Wezeman, P. (2010), Military Spending and Arms Procurement in the Gulf States, Sipri Fact Sheet, Sweden.
V. Ulrichsen, K. C., (2011), Insecure Gulf: the end of certainty and the transition to the post oil era. Colombia University Press, New York, USA